Sunday, February 14, 2016

The War Memorials of Borrowdale, Cumbria

 1. Borrowdale, Castle Crag and the WW1 tablet
(Left): Borrowdale & Castle Crag from the lake
(Right): Castle Crag WW1 memorial tablet 
2. The WW1 and WW2 War Memorial, 
Holy Trinity churchyard, Grange-in-Borrowdale
3. St Andrew’s Church and Churchyard, 
Stonethwaite, Borrowdale, Cumbria
The Celtic Cross WW1 Memorial is on the left

4. (Left): The Borrowdale WW1 ‘Roll of Honour’
(Right): Detail of the churchyard WW1memorial
5. The war memorials inside St Andrew’s Church
(Top): WW1 Borrowdale Church Memorial
(Bottom): WW2 Borrowdale Church Memorial
6. Headstone of WW2 casualty Ted Dover 
Borrowdale (St Andrew’s Churchyard)
________________________________
 For additional information click on ‘Comments’ below.
============================

11 Comments:

Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

Additional information
Introduction: The Borrowdale valley

According to the celebrated guidebook author and illustrator, A.W. Wainwright (1907 – 1991), “The Lake District is the loveliest part of England, and Borrowdale is the fairest of its valleys”. Human settlement in the Borrowdale valley has been traced going back at least 6,000 years. Quarrying, mining and farming have been important human activities in the valley from pre-recorded history until the modern era.

The name Borrowdale derives from Scandinavian settlers who came to the district in the 10th Century, coming from the words ‘Borg’ (fort) and ‘Dalr’ (valley). This ‘Borg’, or hill fort settlement, had been established on Castle Crag overlooking the glaciated valley with a lake (now called Derwentwater) downstream to the north.

It was during the Middle Ages that the valley and the surrounding fells, or mountainous country, was developed economically mainly by monks from the Cistercian Abbey at Furness (now in south Cumbria). During this period, fields on level land in the valley were drained and a variety of crops grown. On the steeper slopes, woodland was managed and mining of iron and graphite ore was opened up. After the Dissolution of the monasteries, German miners were granted rights to extract and develop the mineral rich district, including graphite which led to the production of pencils in the nearby town of Keswick. Some of the older buildings in the valley, including parts of St Andrew’s Church, date from the 17th Century.

During the 18th and 19th Centuries, firstly in the Age of Enlightenment and especially during the Age of Romanticism, Borrowdale and the surrounding countryside increasingly enticed painters, poets, writers to be inspired by the stunning and ever-changing scenery: including J.M.W. Turner, John Constable, William Wordsworth and Robert Southey.

Later writers based some of their most famous works in and around the Borrowdale valley. For example, Sir Hugh Walpole (1884 – 1941), who bought a house, Brackenburn, overlooking the Borrowdale valley and Derwentwater in 1923, based much of his ‘The Herries Chronicle’ around the district. The children’s writer, and later a Lakeland farmer, Beatrix Potter (1866 – 1943), based her illustrations for ‘The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin’ around Derwentwater and St Herbert’s Island, one of Derwentwater’s main islands.

Thus, while the permanent residential population of Borrowdale has never numbered more than a few hundred, for over 200 years the population has had a substantial seasonal increase: in hotels, guest houses, converted barns and camping. In 1901, the residential population was a little under 500 while in the early 21st Century it was a little over 400.

There are six main hamlets in the valley:
Grange-in-Borrowdale;
Lodore & Manesty;
Rosthwaite;
Seatoller, Seathwaite & Honister;
Stonethwaite;
Watendlath.

Between the two World Wars, there were 16 working farms, which has since reduced to 11. During the World Wars, many of those who would normally have worked the land being away in the Armed Forces, which was mitigated by bringing in some prisoners of war and the Women’s Land Army.
--------------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

Borrowdale’s War Memorials

For a community with a population numbering only a few hundred, there are quite a few war memorials, especially for the First World War. Let us look at each of these in turn.

(a) Castle Crag WW1 Memorial

Borrowdale actually has one of the best known, if somewhat unusual, war memorials. It is the summit of Castle Crag, the site of the former Iron Age fortified hill fort overlooking the valley and the lake of Derwentwater. On the left hand side of photograph No 1 (above) is a view of Castle Crag from Derwentwater. Castle Crag is the smaller hill in the middle of the image (immediately behind the motor boat). Just below the summit cairn and shelter is an engraved memorial tablet made of local stone (seen on the right hand side of photograph No. 1).

Originally, it was intended that Castle Crag would be purchased and donated to the National Trust in memory of 2nd Lieutenant John Hamer, a Londoner, killed in action on 22 March 1918. At the time, his uncle was Secretary of the National Trust and this was a favourite spot for the Hamer family.

However, shortly before his death, Canon Herdwicke D. Rawnsley, one of the founder members of the National Trust, suggested that the dedication should also include the ten men of Borrowdale who died in the First World War. Canon Rawnsley was also Chaplain to the King and Chaplain to the Border Regiment Territorials (and the army rank of Colonel).

The Hamer family agreed with Canon Rawnsley’s suggestion. Consequently, Castle Crag was purchased, donated to the National Trust and dedicated not only to 2nd Lt. Hamer but also the ten WW1 casualties of Borrowdale. It was unveiled in June 1921. There is, however, no WW2 memorial on Castle Crag.

The Castle Crag WW1 memorial tablet reads as follows:

“Castle Crag was given to the
National Trust in memory of
JOHN HAMER
2nd Lieut. 6th K.S.L.I., Born July 8 1897
Killed in Action March 22 1918.
Also of
The following men of Borrowdale
Who died for the same cause
2nd Lieut. H.E. LAYLAND, R.E. (should be ‘LEYLAND’)
PTE. G. BIRD, 1st BORDER REGT.
PTE. E.J. BOOW, 2nd BORDER REGT.
PTE, J.H. DOVER, 1st BORDER REGT.
PTE. J. EDMONDSON, 1st BORDER REGT.
PTE. F. HINDMOOR, 7th BORDER REGT.
PTE, W. NICHOLSON, 5th BORDER REGT.
PTE. T. RICHARDSON, 6th BORDER REGT.
PTE. J.W. RIGG, 8th BORDER REGT.
PTE. A.E. WILSON, KING’S OWN ROYAL LANCASTERS.”
………..

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

(b) Grange-in-Borrowdale Memorial Cross (WW1 and WW2)

As outlined above, there are six hamlets in the Borrowdale valley. Grange-in-Borrowdale is one of these hamlets and has two small churches: one for the Church of England originally built in 1860 and dedicated to the Holy Trinity and a second one, a Wesleyan (Methodist) chapel, built in 1893. In the 21st Century, the Grange Methodist chapel houses a free and permanent exhibition “The Borrowdale Story”.

Four of Borrowdale’s ten casualties during the First World War came from Grange-in-Borrowdale. A further three men from the hamlet lost their lives in the Second World War. In the grounds of Holy Trinity Church, there is a memorial cross made of local Honister stone to the memory of the ‘Fallen’ of Grange-in-Borrowdale in the two World Wars (Photograph No. 2).

This memorial is in the shape of a traditional Celtic Cross and was originally unveiled in June 1922 to remember the First World War casualties. One local newspaper article at the time (the ‘West Cumberland Times’) commented, “Often, in those waterlogged trenches, they thought of their Borrowdale”.

After the end of the Second World War the three names of the locals who had died in that war were added to the memorial.

The engraving on the Grange-in-Borrowdale memorial cross is as follows:

“In sacred memory to the men of Grange who gave their lives for the Right and their country in the Great War, 1914 - 1918.

H.E. Leyland
A.E. Wilson
E.J. Boow
W. Nicholson

Also in memory of
E. Dover
R.L.T. Johnson
G.W. Taylor
1939-1945

We will remember them."
……………

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

(c) Borrowdale (Rosthwaite) Memorial Cross (WW1)

In St Andrew’s churchyard at Stonethwaite, Borrowdale there is another Celtic Cross commemorating Borrowdale’s six casualties of the First World War who are not listed on the Grange-in-Borrowdale memorial, which was unveiled in October 1922. It can be seen on the left-hand side of photograph No. 3 (above) and is partly obscured by a large tree.

On the right-hand side of photograph No. 4 is a detail of the inscription of this memorial, which is as follows:

“In Sacred
Memory of
The Men of Borrowdale
Who gave their
Lives for the
Right and their
Country in the
Great War
1914 – 1918
_________
J.W. RIGG
T. RICHARDSON
G. BIRD
F. HINDMOOR
J.H. DOVER
J. EDMONDSON
________
Their name endureth
Throughout all
Generations”

(N.B. No WW2 names were added to this memorial. All three WW2 casualties from the valley are listed on the Celtic Cross at Grange-in-Borrowdale).
--------------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

(d) Borrowdale WW1 ‘Roll of Honour’

Built into the outside wall of the vicarage garden at Stonethwaite, Borrowdale is a ‘Roll of Honour’ listing everyone from the whole valley community known to have served in the 1914 – 1918 war (Photograph No. 4, left-hand side). It is beside the main road through the valley and lists thirty-nine names. As we have seen, ten of these died in the war.

This is a transcription of the tablet seen on the left-hand side of photograph No. 4:

“1914 – 1918
This tablet records the names of those of
This parish who went forth to the Great War”
L-H column:
N.B. ASHWORTH
FLOR. ASHWORTH
E.J. BOOW
R.H. BOOW
G. BIRD
W.S. BIRD
E. BIRD
T. BROWN
W.H. BROWN
F.E. DARVEL
G. DOVER
J.H. DOVER
J. EDMONDSON
…………
Middle Column:
S. EDMONDSON
E. FEIRN
W. GASKELL
J. HIND
F. HINDMOOR
B. JENKINSON
G. JENKINSON
F. JENKINSON
W. JENKINSON
T. JENKINSON
H.E. LEYLAND
J.W. MOUNSEY
W. NICHOLSON
………….
Right-hand column:
J. PLASKETT
T. RICHARDSON
I. RICHARDSON
T. ROBINSON
J.W. RIGG
T.R. RIGG
J.R. RIGG
M.A. SLEE
A. SMITH
E. SMITH
A.E. WILSON
R.B. WOODEND
R. ZANAZZI
----------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

(e) Borrowdale (St Andrew’s) Church memorials (WW1 and WW2)

On the wall inside Borrowdale (St Andrew’s) parish church are war memorials remembering all the local casualties of the valley in both WW1 and WW2 (Photograph No. 5).

The WW1 memorial, seen in the top half of photograph No 5, reads as follows:

“In Sacred Memory
Of the Men of
This parish of
BORROWDALE
Who gave their lives
For the Right
And their country
In the
GREAT WAR
1914 – 1918”
__________
“DULCE ET DECORUM EST
PRO PATRIA MORI”
___________
J.W. RIGG
T. RICHARDSON
G. BIRD
F. HINDMOOR
J.H. DOVER
J. EDMONDSON
H.E. LEYLAND
A.E. WILSON
W. NICHOLSON
E.J. BOOW
___________
“THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE”
………….

The WW2 memorial, seen in the lower half of photograph No. 5, reads as follows:

1939 – 1945
W.E. DOVER
R.L.T. JOHNSON
G.W. TAYLOR
“At the going down of the sun, and in the morning,
We will remember them”
-----------------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

WW2 burial in St Andrew’s Churchyard, Borrowdale

Of the ten local WW1 casualties and the three WW2 casualties only one, Driver Ted Dover, is buried in the valley. He has an official Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstone which is located in St Andrew’s churchyard, Stonethwaite, Borrowdale (Photograph No. 6).

Ted Dover, of Lodore Farm, Borrowdale died on 3 August 1944, aged 32. His funeral service took place three days later, on 6 August 1944, and was conducted by the Vicar of Borrowdale, Reverend Frank H. Warner.

The epitaph on Ted Dover’s headstone reads as follows:
“In loving memory of Ted
Who died on active service.
Loved husband of Laura Dover,
High Lodore, Borrowdale.”
-----------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

Details of Borrowdale’s WW1 and WW2 casualties

For completeness, details of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission citations for the Borrowdale’s WW1 and WW2 casualties, including that for 2nd Lieut. John Hamer remembered on the Castle Crag memorial, are listed below.

(a) C.W.G.C. citations of the WW1 casualties remembered at Borrowdale

(i) 2nd Lieutenant JOHN HAMER
Name: HAMER, JOHN
Rank: Second Lieutenant
Date of Death: 22/03/1918
Age: 20
Regiment / Service: King's Shropshire Light Infantry, "C" Coy. 6th Bn.
Panel Reference: Panel 60.
Memorial: POZIERES MEMORIAL, Somme, France.
Additional Information:
Son of Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Hamer, of 55, Dartmouth Park Hill, London, N.W.
……………..

(ii) Private GEORGE LAWSON BIRD
Name: BIRD, GEORGE LAWSON
Rank: Private
Service No: 23847
Date of Death: 04/07/1917
Age: 28
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 1st Bn.
Grave Reference: I. D. 3.
Cemetery: BARD COTTAGE CEMETERY, Belgium
Additional Information:
Son of James and Elizabeth Bird, of Rosthwaite, Keswick, Cumberland.
Native of Borrowdale, Cumberland.
Headstone epitaph:
“I am the Resurrection
And the Life”
………………..

(iii) Private EDWARD JOHN BOOW
Name: BOOW, E J
Rank: Private
Service No: 21834
Date of Death: 01/07/1916
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 2nd Bn.
Grave Reference: VI. B. 8.
Cemetery: DANTZIG ALLEY BRITISH CEMETERY, MAMETZ, Somme, France
(No epitaph or additional information listed)
……………..

(iv) Private JOHN HENRY DOVER
Name: DOVER, J H
Rank: Private
Service No: 23627
Date of Death: 15/12/1917
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 11th Bn. attd. 97th Trench Mortar Bty.
Grave Reference: VI. BB. 15.
Cemetery: MENDINGHEM MILITARY CEMETERY, Belgium
(No epitaph or additional information listed)
……………….

(v) Private JOHN EDMONDSON
Name: EDMONDSON, JOHN
Rank: Private
Service No: 24717
Date of Death: 13/04/1918
Age: 27
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 1st Bn.
Panel Reference: Panel 6.
Memorial: PLOEGSTEERT MEMORIAL, Belgium
Additional Information:
Son of John and Dinah Edmondson, of Seathwaite Farm, Keswick, Cumberland.
………

(vi) Private FRANK HINDMOOR
Name: HINDMOOR, FRANK
Rank: Private
Service No: 235017
Date of Death: 23/04/1917
Age: 22
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 7th Bn
Panel Reference: Bay 6
Memorial: Arras Memorial, France
Additional information:
Son of Thomas and Ann Hindmoor, of Dale Bottom, Keswick, Cumberland
…………….

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

(vii) 2nd Lieutenant HERBERT EDWARD LEYLAND
Name: LEYLAND, HERBERT EDWARD
Rank: Second Lieutenant
Date of Death: 17/10/1917
Age: 38
Regiment / Service: Royal Engineers, 179th Coy.
Grave Reference: X. G. 6.
Cemetery: DOZINGHEM MILITARY CEMETERY, Belgium
Additional Information:
Son of the late William and Sarah Leyland, of The Hollows, Borrowdale, Keswick, Cumberland; husband of Mabel Maud Mildred Leyland, of Langstrath, Borrowdale, Keswick, Cumberland
Headstone epitaph:
“There’s some corner
of a foreign field
That is forever England”
…………….

(viii) Private WILSON NICHOLSON
Name: NICHOLSON, WILSON
Rank: Private
Service No: 3731
Date of Death: 16/09/1916
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 5th Bn.
Panel Reference: Pier and Face 6 A and 7 C
Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL, Somme, France
(No additional information listed)
………….

(ix) Private THOMAS RICHARDSON
Name: RICHARDSON, THOMAS
Rank: Private Service No: 24775
Date of Death: 31/03/1917 Age: 31
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 6th Bn.
Grave Reference: XXII. D. 13.
Cemetery: ETAPLES MILITARY CEMETERY, France.
Additional Information:
Son of the late John and Mary Richardson, of Seathwaite, Borrowdale, Cumberland.
Headstone epitaph:
“Thy will be done”
…………………

(x) Private JOHN WILLIAM RIGG
Name: RIGG, JOHN WILLIAM
Rank: Private
Service No: 20166
Date of Death: 14/07/1916
Age: 27
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 2nd Bn.
Panel Reference: Pier and Face 6 A and 7 C.
Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL, Somme, France.
Additional Information:
Son of Mrs. Agnes Rigg, of Mountain View, Borrowdale, Keswick, Cumberland
……….

(xi) Private ARTHUR EDWIN WILSON
Name: WILSON, ARTHUR EDWIN
Rank: Private
Service No: 18772
Date of Death: 30/04/1917
Regiment / Service: King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment), 6th Bn.
Panel Reference: Panel 7.
Memorial: BASRA MEMORIAL, Iraq.
(No additional information listed)
-------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

(b) C.W.G.C. citations of the WW2 casualties from Borrowdale

(i) Driver WILLIAM EDWARD (TED) DOVER
Name: DOVER, WILLIAM EDWARD (TED)
Rank: Driver
Service No: 1821070
Date of Death: 03/08/1944
Age: 32
Regiment / Service:
Royal Army Service Corps
Grave Reference: Grave G.11.
Cemetery: BORROWDALE (ST. ANDREW) CHURCHYARD, Cumberland
Additional Information:
Son of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Dover;
husband of Laura Dover, of Borrowdale.
(Headstone epitaph listed above)
…………

(ii) Lieutenant RUPERT LIONEL THEWLIS JOHNSON
Name: JOHNSON, RUPERT LIONEL THEWLIS
Rank: Lieutenant
Service No: 183723
Date of Death: 10/11/1942
Age: 28
Regiment / Service: Royal Armoured Corps, 22nd Dragoons,
seconded to 3rd King's Own Hussars, Royal Armoured Corps
Grave Reference: 4. B. 16.
Cemetery: ALEXANDRIA (HADRA) WAR MEMORIAL CEMETERY, Egypt
Additional Information: Son of Lionel A. T. Johnson and Evelyn Johnson, of Keswick, Cumberland. B.A. (Cantab.).
Headstone epitaph:
“Wounded at El Alamein.
Greatly loved.
Let light perpetual
Shine upon him”
…….

(iii) Lance Corporal GEORGE WILLIAM TAYLOR
Name: TAYLOR, GEORGE WILLIAM
Rank: Lance Corporal
Service No: 3598881
Date of Death: 28/02/1944
Age: 23
Regiment / Service: Border Regiment, 9th Bn.
Grave Reference: 4. B. 12.
Cemetery: IMPHAL WAR CEMETERY, India
Additional Information:
Son of Jonah Colin and Violet Taylor, of Keswick. Cumberland.
Headstone epitaph:
“The Lord is my shepherd
Therefore can I lack nothing”
-------------

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  
Blogger ritsonvaljos said...

Dedication

“In this valley, I have found the whole world”.
Sir Hugh Seymour Walpole, CBE (1884 – 1941)
. . . . . . . . . . . .

This article is dedicated to the WW1 and WW2 casualties connected to the Borrowdale valley. For all but one of them, their final resting place is far from their homeland. Yet, for all of them this fairest of valley communities was their earthly and spiritual home.
Acknowledgements

The Borrowdale churches of St Andrew’s, Holy Trinity and the Methodist Church

‘The Borrowdale Story’ (exhibition and website)
Click on the following link to connect to ‘The Borrowdale Story’ website:
The Borrowdale Story

Cumbria County Archives and Local Studies Centre

Commonwealth War Graves Commission
==================

Sunday, 14 February, 2016  

Post a Comment

Links to this post:

Create a Link

<< Home